This Allophycocyanin (APC) conjugate is formulated in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (150 mM NaCl) PBS pH 7.4, 1% BSA and 0.09% sodium azide as a preservative.
This Allophycocyanin (APC) conjugate is stable when stored at 2-8°C. Do not freeze.
Storage and Handling
Functional grade preclinical antibodies may be stored sterile as received at 2-8°C for up to one month. For longer term storage, aseptically aliquot in working volumes without diluting and store at -70°C. Avoid Repeated Freeze Thaw Cycles.
Country of Origin
Red Laser (650 nm)
Applications and Recommended Usage?
Quality Tested by Leinco
FC5, 10, 12,
WB4, 7, 10,
Additional Applications Reported In Literature ?
IHC5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
IP1, 4, 10, 12,
Each investigator should determine their own optimal working dilution for specific applications. See directions on lot specific datasheets, as information may periodically change.
Anti-CD68 antibody (clone KP1) activity is directed against human CD68.
CD68 is found in the cytoplasm of monocytes/macrophages, fibroblasts, human peripheral blood lymphocytes, neutrophil primary and mast cell granules, large granular lymphocytes, basophils, basal epithelial cell layers, renal glomeruli, myeloid cells, endothelial cells, retinal epithelial cells, osteoblasts, fibroblast-like cells from bone marrow, and a wide-range of lymphoid neoplasms. CD68 is predominantly located in lysosomal membranes, with a small amount on the cell surface. Additionally, CD68 can be expressed in most hematopoietic cell lines by phorbol-induced differentiation; soluble CD68 can also be found in serum and urine.
CD68 is a heavily glycosylated type I transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) family and may play a role in endocytosis or lysosomal traffic and phagocytic activities1. CD68 localizes to endosome- or lysosome-like structures2. Additionally, LAMPS have been implicated in tumor cell metastasis and are over-expressed on the surface of metastatic compared with nonmetastatic cell lines3.
KP1 was originally used as a pan-monocytic/macrophage marker against CD68; however, CD68 is not a macrophage specific antigen and KP1 is known to stain neutrophils and other non-macrophage-like cells4,5,6,7,8. KP1 reacts against CD68 in a wide range of healthy4 and disease-associated (rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis)5 tissues as well as a variety of neoplasms9, tumor cell lines7, and tumor-associated macrophages 8. KP1 detects a fixation-resistant epitope10 that is likely glycan-based1,9 which is shared by many cell types7.
KP1 was developed by immunizing Balb/c mice against a lysosomal fraction of human lung 10. Hybridoma supernatants derived from spleen cells were screened on cryostat human lung and tonsil sections as well as paraffin wax sections of lung tissue fixed in formol saline.
NCBI Gene Bank ID
References & Citations
1. Holness CL, Simmons DL. Blood. 81(6):1607-1613. 1993.
2. Saito N, Pulford KA, Breton-Gorius J, et al. Am J Pathol. 139(5):1053-1059. 1991.
3. Saitoh O, Wang WC, Lotan R, et al. J Biol Chem. 267(8):5700-5711. 1992.
4. Pulford KA, Sipos A, Cordell JL, et al. Int Immunol. 2(10):973-980. 1990.
5. Kunisch E, Fuhrmann R, Roth A, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 63(7):774-784. 2004.
6. Beranek JT. Ann Rheum Dis. 64(2):342-343; author reply 343-344. 2005.
7. Gottfried E, Kunz-Schughart LA, Weber A, et al. Scand J Immunol. 67(5):453-463. 2008.
8. Frafjord A, Skarshaug R, Hammarström C, et al. Scand J Immunol. 92(1):e12889. 2020.
9. Warnke RA, Pulford KA, Pallesen G, et al. Am J Pathol. 135(6):1089-1095. 1989.
10. Pulford KA, Rigney EM, Micklem KJ, et al. J Clin Pathol. 42(4):414-421. 1989.
11. Smith ME, Costa MJ, Weiss SW. Am J Surg Pathol. 15(8):757-763. 1991.
12. Micklem K, Rigney E, Cordell J, et al. Br J Haematol. 73(1):6-11. 1989.