Frequently Asked Questions


GENERAL

ANTIBODIES

ELISA


 

GENERAL

Q: What type of antibodies do you offer?
Leinco Technologies offers a wide range of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for detecting mouse, human, non-human primate and other species of antigens. Our antibodies can be used for the detection of cell surface markers, such as CD molecules, chemokine receptors, cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins, as well as intracellular cytokines/chemokines. They are used in the following applications:  Flow Cytometry, ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation, etc.

Q:  What is the shelf life of Leinco Technologies antibodies and proteins?
Leinco Technologies does not limit the shelf life of any antibody or protein by providing an expiration date. Under proper storage conditions, proteins and antibodies can maintain stability for many years. These conditions include storing proteins as lyophilized powder which is stable for six to twelve months when stored desiccated at -20°C to -70°C. After aseptic reconstitution, this protein may be stored at 2°C to 8°C for one month or at -20°C to -70°C in a manual defrost freezer for up to one year
(avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles). Remember to always refer to lot-specific data sheets for exact storage conditions. Leinco Technologies cannot control the end user’s storage conditions of received products; however, we do guarantee the stability in normal lab conditions for up to one year from time of delivery. All products supplied by Leinco Technologies are also guaranteed to meet or exceed our published specification when used within normal lab conditions. Please refer to individual data sheets for any specific stability claims. If the product fails during the stated period, a replacement product or credit will be issued. If you have any questions about this policy please call our customer service team at 1-800-538-1145.

Q:  What do the application abbreviations stand for?

  • FC – Flow Cytometry
  • IHC (Frozen) – Immunohistochemistry (Frozen)
  • Indirect FC – Indirect Flow Cytometry
  • IP – Immunoprecipitation
  • WB – Western Blot
  • IHC (NBF/Par.) – Immunohistochemistry (NBF/Par.)
  • ELISA Cap. – ELISA Capture
  • N – Neutralization
  • ICC – Immunocytochemistry
  • ELISA Det. – ELISA Detection
  • IF – Immunofluorescence
  • FA – Functional Assay
  • B – Blocking
  • ELISPOT Cap. –  ELISPOT Capture

Q:  What epitope does this monoclonal antibody recognize?
Leinco Technologies does not epitope map its antibodies. The antibody is usually generated using the entire immunogen included on the data sheet.

Q:  What epitope does this polyclonal antibody recognize?
Polyclonal antibodies generally have multiple epitope recognition. The antibodies are often generated using the entire immunogen listed on the product data sheet as both the immunogen and, in many cases, the affinity ligand for purification.

Q:  Where can I obtain the Material Safety Data Sheets for Leinco Technologies products?
On each of our product data sheets is a link to all of the available MSDS. You can also obtain these from the Technical Support section of our website. If your product isn't covered in this section, please contact Leinco Technologies Technical Services at 1-800-538-1145.

Q:  How are Leinco Technologies reagents shipped?
Our products are shipped FedEx Standard Overnight based on product temperature sensitivity requirements. Fees for dry ice, blue ice and other special handling fees may apply.

Q:  When can I expect to receive my order?
All US orders (if in stock) will ship within 1–2 business days via FedEx Standard Overnight shipping. All international orders typically ship on Mondays and Fridays only and should arrive within 2 business days from ship date. All international orders require pre-payment.

Q:  Why should I order from a distributor?
For direct orders shipped outside the U.S., shipping costs are typically higher in addition to pre-payment being required for direct international shipments. The recipient will also pay taxes and duties upon shipment delivery. In some countries, the customer will need to apply for an import permit. When ordering from a distributor, the payment terms are usually more flexible, the customer and technical support is more immediate and the customer usually does not have to deal with customs agencies, duties/taxes and currency exchange.

ANTIBODIES

Q:  What formats do you offer?
Leinco Technologies offers antibodies in a variety of formats for use in many applications. We carry purified and biotin conjugates with and without sodium azide as well as a large number of direct fluorophore conjugates. These include:

  • AMCA
  • Cy2
  • Cy3
  • Cy5
  • Dylight® 488
  • Dylight® 549
  • Dylight® 594
  • Dylight® 649
  • Fluorescein (FITC)
  • Low Endotoxin Functional Grade
  • PerCP
  • Rhodamine Red-X
  • Rhodamine TRITC
  • R-PE

Q:  What is the difference between your Purified No Carrier Protein and Functional Grade Purified formats?
The Purified No Carrier Protein format of our monoclonal antibodies contains no additional protein carriers such as BSA or gelatin but may contain sodium azide as a preservative. These products can be used for flow cytometry, WB, IP and IHC applications. The Functional Grade purified formats contain no sodium azide and are tested for endotoxin. These products meet or exceed the industry standard of 0.01ng/ug endotosin/ug antibody and in most instances have endotoxin levels significantly lower than these standards. Please contact leincoglobal@leinco.com if you would like lot specific information for Functional Grade products. The Functional Grade formats are generally used for bioassays and In vivo studies.

Q:  What applications can I use Leinco Technologies antibodies for?
Leinco Technologies antibodies can be used for a variety of applications such as:

  • Flow Cytometry (FC)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  • Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (Frozen))
  • Western Blotting (WB)
  • Immunoprecipitation (IP)
  • ELISA
  • ELISPOT
  • Functional Assays (FA)
  • Neutralization/Blocking studies (N/B)
  • In vitro Cytokine Capture Assay (IVCCA)
  • In vivo studies in mice
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)

Q:  Can I use Leinco Technologies' antibodies for matched pair ELISA with a standard from another company?
Yes, but we recommend proceeding with caution. One observed problem with using antibodies from one company and a standard from a different company is there can be differences in the binding between antibody and recombinant protein. This could happen if there is a difference in the folding or sequence of the recombinant protein used as the standard vs. the recombinant protein used as the antigen for the antibody. Protein folding or sequence differences in the antibody-binding region can result in poor to no recognition of the standard.

Q:  What epitope does this monoclonal antibody recognize?
Leinco Technologies does not epitope map its antibodies. The antibody is usually generated using the entire immunogen included on the data sheet.

Q:  What epitope does this polyclonal antibody recognize?
Polyclonal antibodies generally have multiple epitope recognition. The antibodies are often generated using the entire immunogen listed on the product data sheet as both the immunogen and, in many cases, the affinity ligand for purification.

ELISA

Q:  What is a Direct/Indirect ELISA?
In a direct ELISA, a plate is coated with the antigen of interest and a detection antibody is used to verify its presence. This technique is only considered semi-quantitative when compared with the recombinant standard. Please refer to the Indirect ELISA Protocol.

Q:  What is a Sandwich ELISA?
A sandwich ELISA uses a capture antibody specific for the antigen of interest in a sample. The antigen of interest is then bound to the immobilized antibody. A labeled secondary antibody, specific for the antigen of interest, is used for detection. The antigen of interest is “sandwiched” between the two antibodies. Please refer to the Sandwich ELISA Protocol.

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