Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a zoonotic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family 1. It is the next most pathogenic poxvirus after smallpox. Two genetic clades, West African and Central African (Congo Basin), have been characterized; the latter is capable of human-to-human transmission 1,2. Monkeypox has gained clinical relevance due to the eradication of smallpox, which has created opportunities for increased prevalence and viral mutations that may affect virulence 1, 2. An infection with one orthopoxvirus of any one species, or vaccinia virus vaccination, protects against infection by other orthopoxviruses 3,4,5. MPXV is an enveloped virus with a linear, double-stranded DNA genome 2 and a large, complex proteome of over 200 proteins 6. During infection, the virus exists in two antigenically distinct forms: mature virions (MV) or enveloped virions (EV) 6.
1 Sklenovská N, Van Ranst M. Front Public Health. 6:241. 2018.
2 Moore M, Zahra F. 2021 Oct 19. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–.
3 McConnell S, Herman YF, Mattson DE, et al. Am J Vet Res. 25:192-195. 1964.
4 Hammarlund E, Lewis MW, Carter SV, et al. Nat Med. 11(9):1005-1011. 2005.
5 Gilchuk I, Gilchuk P, Sapparapu G, et al. Cell. 167(3):684-694.e9. 2016.
6 Moss B. Immunol Rev.239:8–26. 2011.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that infects the majority of children by two years old 1, 2. While usually mild, RSV can be serious in infants and older adults and is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than one year of age in the United States 1. A related pneumovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), also significantly contributes to hospitalizations resulting from lower respiratory tract infection 2. Antibodies have been described that bind and neutralize both RSV and hMPV fusion (F) proteins.
1 National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases, https://www.cdc.gov/rsv/index.html
2 Mousa JJ, Binshtein E, Human S, et al. PLoS Pathog. 14(2):e1006837. 2018.
Hantavirus is an enveloped, negative-sensed, single-stranded RNA virus in the bunyavirus family 1. “New World” hantaviruses (NWH) are found in the Americas and may cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) 2. “Old World” hantaviruses (OWH) are found mostly in Europe and Asia and may cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Each hantavirus serotype has a specific rodent host species and infection is spread primarily by aerosolized feces, urine, or saliva, with the exception of Andes Virus (ANDV) which is also capable of human-to-human transmission 3,4.
1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP), https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/technical/hanta/virology.html
2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP), https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/index.html
3 Padula PJ, Edelstein A, Miguel SD, et al. Virology. 241:323–330. 1998.
4 Martinez VP, Bellomo C, San Juan J, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 11:1848–1853. 2005.
Henipavirus spp. are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Paramyxovirus 1. Five species have been identified, two of which, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are highly virulent emerging pathogens with high case-fatality ratios. The other three species, Cedar virus, Ghanaian bat virus, and Mojiang virus are not known to cause human disease. Pteropid bats are the reservoir host. HeV is transmitted by direct contact with infected horses, their fluids, or tissues 1. Horses are infected by exposure to pteropid bats. NiV is transmitted by contact with infected pigs or bats and person-to-person. Both HeV and NiV cause severe influenza-like illness that can progress to encephalitis.
1 Shoemaker T, Choi MJ. Chapter 4: Travel-Related Infectious Diseases, Henipaviruses. In: Brunette GW, Nemhauser JB, eds. 2020 CDC Yellow Book. CDC; National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ), wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/henipaviruses
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common insect-transmitted virus to target humans, with an estimated 390 million infections annually 1. DENVs are members of the Flaviviridae family and can be divided into four closely related but antigenically distinct serotypes 2. They encode a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome and display 180 copies of envelope (E) glycoprotein and premembrane/membrane (prM/M) proteins. E glycoprotein is comprised of three structural domains, DI, DII, and DIII, and exists as a homodimer in the pre-fusion state on the mature virus particle. E undergoes multiple conformation changes during maturation and fusion.
1 Smith SA, de Alwis AR, Kose N, et al. mBio. 4(6):e00873-13. 2013.
2 Lecouturier V, Berry C, Saulnier A, et al. Vaccine. 37(32):4601-4609. 2019.
Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus endemic to Asia and parts of the western Pacific 1. Symptomatic JEV infection is most common in children in areas of endemicity or travellers to those regions. Severe symptoms occur in ~1% of cases, with a case-fatality ratio of 20–30%. Survivors often have serious neurologic, cognitive, or psychiatric sequelae. Five JEV genotypes have been identified and existing vaccines are derived from historically predominant GIII strains 2.
1 Hills SL, Lindsey NP, Fischer M. Chapter 4: Travel-Related Infectious Diseases, Japanese Encephalitis. In: Brunette GW, Nemhauser JB, eds. 2020 CDC Yellow Book. CDC; National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ), https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/japanese-encephalitis
2 Fernandez E, Kose N, Edeling MA, et al. mBio. 9(1):e00008-18. 2018.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV), one of the most virulent viruses endemic to North America, is a rare mosquito-borne encephalitic alphavirus in the Togaviridae family. Infection leads to a 30% to 75% mortality rate, and up to 90% of survivors develop ongoing neurologic problems 1, 2. On average, seven human cases are confirmed each year in the United States. EEEV is of particular concern because of its potential aerosol spread and lack of available treatments. EEEV prevalence in mosquitoes that feed on humans has recently increased.
1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD), https://www.cdc.gov/easternequineencephalitis/index.html
2 Williamson LE, Gilliland T Jr, Yadav PK, et al. Cell. 183(7):1884-1900.e23. 2020.
Ross River Virus (RRV) is a mosquito-borne, positive sense, single-stranded virus endemic to Australia and Papua New Guinea that belongs to the arthritogenic group of alphaviruses 1. The mature glycoprotein is composed of E1 and E2 envelope proteins in a heterodimer, expressed as a trimeric spike on the virus surface 2.
1 Powell LA, Fox JM, Kose N, et al. PLoS Pathog. 16(5):e1008517. 2020.
2 Snyder AJ, Mukhopadhyay S. J Virol. 86(24):13609-20. 2012.
Rotaviruses (RV) are double-stranded, non-enveloped, icosahedral RNA viruses in the Reoviridae family1 that cause severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants and children2. RV particles are composed of concentric viral protein (VP) layers3. The triple-layered particle has an inner capsid layer (VP2), an intermediate capsid layer (VP6), and an outer capsid layer (VP7, VP4). The transcriptionally active double-layered particle (DLP) consists of VP2 and VP6. VP6 is the most antigenic RV protein in humans4. The antibody VH1–46 gene segment is the site of primary interaction with VP65.
1 Aiyegbo MS, Eli IM, Spiller BW, et al. J Virol. 88(1):469-76. 2014.
2 Bern C, Martines J, de Zoysa I, et al. Bull World Health Organ. 70: 705-714. 1992.
3 Pesavento, JB, Crawford SE, Estes MK, et al. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 309: 189-219. 2006.
4 McKinney BA, Kallewaard NL, Crowe JE, et al. Immunome Res 3:8. 2007.
5 Kallewaard NL, McKinney BA, Gu Y, et al. J Immunol. 180(6):3980-9. 2008.
| Coming Soon Anti-Vaccinia Virus (Clone: VACV-301)
||Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes cowpox virus (CPXV), monkeypox virus (MPXV), and variola virus (VARV)1. Orthopoxviruses have a large and complex proteome, and various species share genetic and antigenic features. Indeed, an infection with one orthopoxvirus species, or vaccinia virus vaccination, protects against infection by other orthopoxviruses 1,2,3. During infection, VACV has two antigenically distinct forms: mature virions (MV) or enveloped virions (EV).
1 Gilchuk I, Gilchuk P, Sapparapu G, et al. Cell. 167(3):684-694.e9. 2016.
2 McConnell S, Herman YF, Mattson DE, et al. Am J Vet Res. 25:192-195. 1964.
3 Hammarlund E, Lewis MW, Carter SV, et al. Nat Med. 11(9):1005-1011. 2005.
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA flavivirus 1. E protein is the main target of flavivirus neutralizing antibodies. E consists of three structural domains (DI, DII, DIII).
1 Goo L, Debbink K, Kose N, et al. Nat Microbiol. 4(1):71-77. 2019.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes epidemics globally and has been declared a notable disease by the CDC 1,2. Symptoms include high fever, myalgia, rash, and severe polyarthritis which can persist for long after acute infection. CHIKV is an enveloped virus with an 11.8-kb single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome with two open reading frames (3,4). There are three main genotypes, having 95.2 to 99.8% amino acid identity: Asian, West African, and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The mature CHIKV virion is comprised of a nucleocapsid protein C and two glycoproteins, E1 and E2 5. E1 participates in virus fusion. E2 functions in attachment to cells. E1 and E2 form 80 trimeric spikes on the virus surface6.
1 Petersen, L. R., & Epstein, J. S. (2014). Transfusion, 54(8), 1911–1915.
2Silva, JVJ Jr., Ludwig-Begall, LF., Oliveira-Filho, EF. et al. (2018) Acta Trop. 188:213-224.
3 Powers, AM., Brault, AC., Tesh, RB. et al. (2000) J. Gen. Virol. 81:471–479.
4 Arankalle, VA., Shrivastava, S., Cherian, S. et al. (2007) J. Gen. Virol. 88:1967–1976.
5 Pal, P., Dowd, KA., Brien, JD. et al. (2013)PLoS Pathog. 9(4):e1003312.
6 Mukhopadhyay, S., Zhang, W., Gabler, S. et al. (2006) Structure. 14(1):63-73.
Influenza A & B
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is a global public health problem 1, linked causally to severe fetal abnormalities 2. Prophylactic antibodies may prove useful in treating pregnant patients or for designing epitope-specific vaccines 1. The mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) ZV-67 specifically targets ZIKV and neutralizes infection of the American, Asian, and African strains to varying degrees 1.
1 Zhao H, Fernandez E, Dowd KA. et al. (2016). Cell. 166(4):1016-1027.
2 Brasil P, Pereira Jr JP, Moreira ME. et al. (2016). N Engl J Med. 375(24):2321-2334.