Custom Antibody Conjugation Services

Custom Conjugation Services
for Antibodies and Proteins

Since Leinco Technologies was founded in 1992, our scientists have developed and optimized a panel of immunochemistry procedures such as conjugation of antibodies and proteins to enzymes or fluorescent reporter molecules and digestion of antibodies into F(ab) or F(ab)2 fragments. Leinco’s custom antibody conjugation services are used for early discovery research or as components for in vitro diagnostic kits to assess disease states.

Protein chemists at Leinco Technologies employ linkage and post conjugation purification techniques that result in conjugates that have increased signal to background ratios for product applications such as flow cytometry, ELISA, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and membrane assays. Below is a list of common reporter molecules used to tag antibodies for both research and diagnostic applications.

Available Formats

Reporter Molecule MW (g/mol)
(x 10 -3)
Abs. Max.
ε (M -1cm-1) Em. Max.
Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) 140 280
Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) 45.9 403
Allophycocyanin (APC) 104 650 700,000 660
Fluorescein (FITC) 0.473 495 74,000 519
R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) 240 565.5 1,960,000 578
Texas Red 0.817 583 116,000 603
Rhodamine 0.430 540 95,000 565
PerCP 35 482 40,600 675
Dylight® 488 1.011 493 70,000 518
Dylight® 549 0.982 562 150,000 576
Dylight® 594 1.078 593 80,000 618
Dylight® 649 1.008 654 250,000 673

Note: Depending upon excitation and emission requirements, a variety of other reporter molecules are available to be covalently linked to antibodies or proteins. Additional information on DyLight® Fluorophores.

Final Fill Finish

Antibody and protein conjugates are formulated in stability buffers that increase product shelf life and optimize performance. Final products may be packaged in vials ready for assembly in commercial In vitro diagnostic kits or in bulk to aliquot into working volumes by research scientists. In addition, Leinco offers custom product formulations such as BSA-free, azide-free, or low endotoxin azide-free.

Preparation of F(ab) or F(ab)2 Fragments of Antibodies

Leinco Technologies has extensive experience in enzyme digestion of antibodies into univalent F(ab) or F(ab)2 fragments for use in immunoassays, immunohistochemistry and In vivo functional assays. Antibody fragments may be adsorbed against serum proteins to remove undesired species cross-reactivity and conjugated to the required reporter molecule.