Application

Abbreviation

Description

3D Immunohistochemistry 3D IHC
Activation Act
The conversion of an inactive enzyme or molecule into an active form or , in immunology, can refer to the transition of leukocytes in the immune system.
Sequential Adaptation Adapt
Agonist Agonist
A chemical that binds and activates a receptor to produce a biological response.
Antagonist Antagonist
A chemical that binds and blocks a receptor to inhibit a biological response.
Blocking B
Cell Separation by Negative Selection Cell Sep – Neg
Separation of cells of interest by magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibody against surface antigens which are known to be present on cells that are not of interest, thus allowing the cells of interest to flow through the column placed in a magnetic field and appear in the collected fraction.
Cell Separation by Positive Selection Cell Sep – Pos
Separation of cells of interest by magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibody against surface antigens which are known to be present on cells of interest, thus allowing the cells of interest to be held in the column and after removing the column from the magnetic field the cells of interest can be washed out and obtained.
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Costimulation Costim
A supplementary signal that immune cells need to activate an immune response in the presence of an APC.
CyTOF® CyTOF®
Depletion Depletion
Dot Blots Dot A dot blot is a time saving technique similar to Western blotting (but does not reveal the size of the target protein) that involves spotting samples onto a membrane and using a primary antibody conjugated to a detection molecule (commonly HRP or alkaline phosphatase) to allow visualization when incubated with a chemiluminescent substrate.
Electron Microscopy EM
Have a higher resolving power than traditional light microscopes and are used to investigate the ultrastructure of a variety of biological molecules especially within a cell.
ELISA ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) uses a liquid sample added onto a stationary solid phase that involves the serial binding of antibodies in a multiwell plate to detect the presence of a protein of interest resulting in a colored end product which correlates to the amount of target protein in the original sample.
ELISA Capture Sandwich Assay ELISA Cap. The term “sandwich” stems from the protein target being bound between two antibodies. The primary antibody is coated to the wells of the microplate. Samples, standards, or controls are then added into these wells, which bind to the immobilized primary antibody. The secondary antibody is added, binding to the primary antibody/target protein complex forming the “sandwich”. The intensity of this signal produced by the secondary antibody is directly proportional to the concentration of target present in the original specimen.
ELISA Detection ELISA Det ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) uses a liquid sample added onto a stationary solid phase that involves the serial binding of antibodies in a multiwell plate to detect the presence of a protein of interest resulting in a colored end product which correlates to the amount of target protein in the original sample.
ELISA Indirect Detection ELISA Indirect Indirect ELISA involves the use of a primary antibody in addition to a labeled secondary antibody that when a substrate is added, produces a signal for detection.
ELISPOT ELISPOT The aim of ELISPOT is to quantitatively measure the frequency of cytokine secretion for a single cell. It is similar to ELISA in that it uses bound antibodies in a multiwell plate to bind and capture a protein of interest in a sample. The cytokine is detected with either a biotinylated antibody and followed by a streptavidin-enzyme conjugate or an enzyme-conjugated antibody that when using a substrate, results is visible spots that correspond to an individual cytokine-secreting cell.
ELISPOT Detection ELISPOT Det
Flow Cytometry FC Flow cytometry is a cell analysis technique used to measure the characteristics of many cells in a rapidly flowing fluid stream. The cells, often labeled with fluorescent markers, ideally flow one at a time through a laser beam and the light scattered is characteristic to the cells and their components.
Functional Assay FA The aim of a functional assay is to quantify functioning of an active substance as opposed to its quantity.
Immunocytochemistry ICC
A common laboratory technique that allows researchers to evaluate if cells in a sample express the antigen in question by use of a primary antibody that binds to it which allows for visualization of the antigen under a fluorescence microscope via a secondary antibody that has a conjugated fluorophore.
Immunofluorescece Staining IF Staining A technique used for light microscopy that allows visualization of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample by using fluorescently tagged antibodies specific to the target molecule.
Immunofluorescence Microscopy IF Microscopy
A technique used for light microscopy that allows visualization of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample by using fluorescently tagged antibodies specific to the target molecule.
Immunohistochemistry – Frozen IHC (Frozen)
Immunohistochemistry – Paraffin IHC (Paraffin)
Immunoprecipitation IP Immunoprecipitation is a small-scale type of affinity purification that precipitates a protein of interest out of solution via an immobilized antibody that is commonly bound to magnetic particles or agarose resin.
Intracellular Staining for Flow Cytometry ICFC
A technique used to detect the characteristics of intracellulary-stained cells.
Live Cell Imaging LCI Live cell imaging techniques are designed to provide high-resolution visualization across both space and time of subcellular events in real-time without compromising the health of the cell.
Membrane Membrane
Microwell Microwell Microwell plates are flat plates of various sizes with multiple wells that are used as small testubes. The common 96-well microplates are compatible with automated laboratory equipment and often used for ELISA assays.
Microwell Enhancer ME Microwell enhancers generate enhanced assay signal detection.
Neutralization N Neutralization describes the binding of an antibody to an antigen that results in the loss of an essential function of that antigen. For example, an antibody may inhibit a part of a microbe that is necessary for its invasion and survival.
RIA RIA RIA is a sensitive In vitro assay technique used to measure concentrations of substances by using antibody-antigen interactions. A radiolabeled antigen of known quantity is compared it to a sample of unknown quantity of the same antigen causing the unlabeled antigen to compete with the radiolabeled antigen for antibody binding sites, thus reducing the ratio of antibody-bound radiolabeled antigen to free radiolabeled antigen.
Western Blotting WB Western blot separates denatured proteins first by gel electrophoresis, and then transfers them to a membrane. A specific protein on the membrane is identified via its reaction with a primary antibody that in turn reacts with a secondary antibody labeled for detection.