Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11), also known as BMP11, is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and highly related to GDF-8. The members of this family are regulators of cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues (1). GDF-11 is a secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/ posterior axis during development. It can bind the type I TGF-beta superfamily receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7 but predominantly uses ALK4 and ALK5 for signal transduction (1). GDF-11 has been shown to suppress neurogenesis through a myostatin-like pathway, which involves arrest of progenitor cell-cycle in the G1 phase (2). It inhibits the proliferation of olfactory receptor neuron progenitors to regulate the number of olfactory receptor neurons occurring in the olfactory epithelium, and controls the competence of progenitor cells to regulate numbers of retinal ganglionic cells developing in the retina (3-4). Similarities between myostatin and GDF-11, which are 90% identical in their amino acid sequence, suggests that the regulatory mechanisms responsible for maintaining proper tissue size during neural and muscular development might be the same. In mice, GDF-11 is expressed in diverse regions of the embryo and targeted deletion of the protein results in a spectrum of abnormalities (5).
>95% by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by silver stain.
<0.01EU/µg as determined by the LAL method
The biological activity of Human GDF11 was determined by its ability to induce alkaline phosphatase production of ATDC-5 chondrogenic cells. The expected ED50 for this effect is 0.1 µg/ml.
Protein Accession No.
Amino Acid Sequence
nlgldcdehs sesrccrypl tvdfeafgwd wiiapkryka nycsgqceym fmqkyphthl vqqanprgsa gpcctptkms pinmlyfndk qqiiygkipg mvvdrcgcs
N-terminal Sequence Analysis
State of Matter
Predicted Molecular Mass
The predicted molecular weight of Recombinant Human GDF11 is Mr 12.6 kDa.
This recombinant protein was lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in 35% acetonitrile (CH3CN) and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).
Storage and Stability
This lyophilized protein is stable for six to twelve months when stored desiccated at -20°C to -70°C. After aseptic reconstitution, this protein may be stored at 2°C to 8°C for one month or at -20°C to -70°C in a manual defrost freezer. Avoid Repeated Freeze Thaw Cycles. See Product Insert for exact lot specific storage instructions.
Country of Origin
Next Day Ambient
NCBI Gene Bank
References & Citations
1. Andersson, O. et al. (2006) EMBO Rep. 7:831
2. Langley, B. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:49831
3. Wu, H. et al. (2003) Neuron 37:197
4. Kim, J. et al. (2005) Science 308:1927
5. Nakashima, M. et al. (1999) Mech. Dev. 80:185
IMPORTANT Use lot specific datasheet for all technical information pertaining to this recombinant protein.
Products are for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.