Recombinant mouse galectin-9
≥ 5.0 mg/ml
< 1.0 EU/mg as determined by the LAL method
≥95% by SDS Page
≥95% monomer by analytical SEC
This monoclonal antibody is aseptically packaged and formulated in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (150 mM NaCl) PBS pH 7.2 - 7.4 with no carrier protein, potassium, calcium or preservatives added. Due to inherent biochemical properties of antibodies, certain products may be prone to precipitation over time. Precipitation may be removed by aseptic centrifugation and/or filtration.
Functional grade preclinical antibodies are manufactured in an animal free facility using only In vitro protein free cell culture techniques and are purified by a multi-step process including the use of protein A or G to assure extremely low levels of endotoxins, leachable protein A or aggregates.
Storage and Handling
Functional grade preclinical antibodies may be stored sterile as received at 2-8°C for up to one month. For longer term storage, aseptically aliquot in working volumes without diluting and store at -80°C. Avoid Repeated Freeze Thaw Cycles.
Country of Origin
Next Day 2-8°C
Other Applications Reported In Literature ?
Each investigator should determine their own optimal working dilution for specific applications. See directions on lot specific datasheets, as information may periodically change.
RG9-1 activity is directed against mouse galectin-9.
Galectin-9 is expressed by many cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, astrocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells.
Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a member of the galectin family of mammalian lectins, binds β-galactoside. Gal-9 is expressed by many cell types, including endothelial cells, the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, T cells, B cells, macrophages, and mast cells1. Gal-9 plays a significant role in innate and adaptive immunity and regulates excessive immunity by suppressing interleukin (IL)-17 producing effector T helper cells (Th)17 and Th1 as well as by augmenting Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). In addition, Gal-9 induces monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), granulocytic MDSCs, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell-like macrophages. Gal-9 also suppresses B cell receptor signaling and is regulated by I-branching of N-glycans2. Additionally, Gal-9 stimulates the maturation of dendritic cells3.
Gal-9 is thought to function by binding to specific carbohydrate moieties in receptor molecules expressed on the surface of its target cells, including the T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3)1. Gal-9 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm but can also be secreted3. Gal-9 is expressed by a variety of tumor cells, plays a role in tumor immunity, and can suppress tumor metastasis by blocking adhesion to endothelium and extracellular matrices4. CD45, which regulates antigen receptor signaling, is a major glycoprotein receptor for Gal-9 on naive B cells2.
Binds to β-galactosides and can serve as a ligand for TIM-3 (CD366)
References & Citations
1. Oomizu S, Arikawa T, Niki T, et al. PLoS One. 7(11):e48574. 2012.
2. Giovannone N, Liang J, Antonopoulos A, et al. Nat Commun. 9: 3287 (2018).
3. Yang R, Rabinovich G, Liu F. Expert Rev Mol Med. 10, E17. 2008.
4. Nobumoto A, Nagahara K, Oomizu S, et al. Glycobiology. 18(9):735-744. 2008
5. de Mingo Pulido Á, Gardner A, et al. Cancer Cell. Jan 8;33(1):60-74.e6. 2018.
6. Daley D, Zambirinis CP, Seifert L, et al. Cell. 8;166(6):1485-1499.e15. 2016.
7. Dolina JS, Braciale TJ, Hahn YS. Hepatology. Apr;59(4):1351-1365. 2014.
Products are for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.