This Biotinylated antibody is formulated in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (150 mM NaCl) PBS pH 7.4, 1% BSA and 0.09% sodium azide as a preservative.
Storage and Handling
This biotinylated antibody is stable when stored at 2-8°C. Do not freeze.
Country of Origin
Next Day Ambient
Applications and Recommended Usage?
Quality Tested by Leinco
Each investigator should determine their own optimal working dilution for specific applications. See directions on lot specific datasheets, as information may periodically change.
Clone 1a3 recognizes a monomorphic epitope on human HLA-DQ1. It does not cross-react with HLA-DR or HLA-DP.
HLA-DQ is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, monocytes, DCs, and B cells, and activated T cells.
HLA-DQ antibody, clone 1a3, recognizes the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule Human Leukocyte Antigen - DQ isotype (HLA-DQ). MHC class II is constitutively expressed on human professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including macrophages/monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells, and is induced on T cells upon activation2. HLA-DQ consists of two transmembrane proteins, a 35 kDa α (heavy) chain and 29 kDa β (light) chain3 encoded by the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes, respectively, located in the HLA complex of chromosome 6. The N-terminal α1 and β1 domains form the antigen-binding groove, which binds 13-25 aa peptides derived from exogenous antigens4. On APCs, MHC class II plays a critical role in the adaptive immune response by presenting phagocytosed antigens to helper CD4 T cells. The T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex of CD4 T cells interacts with peptide-MHC class II, which induces CD4 T cell activation leading to the coordination and regulation of other effector cells. CD4 molecules also bind to MHC class II, which helps augment TCR signaling5. It has also been demonstrated that MHC class II express on activated T cells are capable of antigen presentation6 and can transduce signals into T cells, enhancing T cell proliferation and activity7. Specific alleles of HLA-DQ are associated with autoimmune diseases, including celiac disease8 and type 1 diabetes9, and graft-versus-host disease10.
NCBI Gene Bank ID
References & Citations
1. Shookster L, et al. (1987) Hum Immunol. 20(1):59-70
2. Holling TM, Schooten E, van Den Elsen PJ. (2004) Hum Immunol. 65(4):282-90
3. Mitaksov V, Fremont DH. (2006) J Biol Chem. 281(15):10618-25
4. Wieczorek M, et al. (2017) Front Immunol. 8:292
5. Artyomov MN, et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107(39):16916-16921
6. Barnaba V, et al (1994) Eur J Immunol. 24(1):71-5
7. Di Rosa F, et al. (1993) Hum Immunol. 38(4):251-60
8. Castaño L, et al. (2004) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 39:80–84
9. Cucca F, et al. (1993) Hum Immunol. 37:85 –94
10. Petersdorf EW, (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93(26):15358-63
Products are for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.