≥ 5.0 mg/ml
≤ 1.0 EU/mg as determined by the LAL method
≥95% monomer by analytical SEC
>95% by SDS Page
This monoclonal antibody is aseptically packaged and formulated in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (150 mM NaCl) PBS pH 7.2 - 7.4 with no carrier protein, potassium, calcium or preservatives added.
Functional grade preclinical antibodies are manufactured in an animal free facility using only In vitro protein free cell culture techniques and are purified by a multi-step process including the use of protein A or G to assure extremely low levels of endotoxins, leachable protein A or aggregates.
Storage and Handling
Functional grade preclinical antibodies may be stored sterile as received at 2-8°C for up to one month. For longer term storage, aseptically aliquot in working volumes without diluting and store at -80°C. Avoid Repeated Freeze Thaw Cycles.
Country of Origin
Next Day 2-8°C
Applications and Recommended Usage?
Quality Tested by Leinco
FC The suggested concentration for this HLA-DQ (Clone 1a3) antibody for staining cells in flow cytometry is ≤ 1.0 μg per 106 cells in a volume of 100 μl or 100μl of whole blood. Titration of the reagent is recommended for optimal performance for each application.
WB The suggested concentration for this HLA-DQ (Clone 1a3) antibody for use in western blotting is 1-10 μg/ml.
Other Applications Reported In Literature ?
Each investigator should determine their own optimal working dilution for specific applications. See directions on lot specific datasheets, as information may periodically change.
Clone 1a3 recognizes a monomorphic epitope on human HLA-DQ1. It does not cross-react with HLA-DR or HLA-DP.
HLA-DQ is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, monocytes, DCs, and B cells, and activated T cells.
HLA-DQ antibody, clone 1a3, recognizes the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule Human Leukocyte Antigen - DQ isotype (HLA-DQ). MHC class II is constitutively expressed on human professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including macrophages/monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells, and is induced on T cells upon activation2. HLA-DQ consists of two transmembrane proteins, a 35 kDa α (heavy) chain and 29 kDa β (light) chain3 encoded by the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes, respectively, located in the HLA complex of chromosome 6. The N-terminal α1 and β1 domains form the antigen-binding groove, which binds 13-25 aa peptides derived from exogenous antigens4. On APCs, MHC class II plays a critical role in the adaptive immune response by presenting phagocytosed antigens to helper CD4 T cells. The T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex of CD4 T cells interacts with peptide-MHC class II, which induces CD4 T cell activation leading to the coordination and regulation of other effector cells. CD4 molecules also bind to MHC class II, which helps augment TCR signaling5. It has also been demonstrated that MHC class II express on activated T cells are capable of antigen presentation6 and can transduce signals into T cells, enhancing T cell proliferation and activity7. Specific alleles of HLA-DQ are associated with autoimmune diseases, including celiac disease8 and type 1 diabetes9, and graft-versus-host disease10.
NCBI Gene Bank ID
References & Citations
1. Shookster L, et al. (1987) Hum Immunol. 20(1):59-70
2. Holling TM, Schooten E, van Den Elsen PJ. (2004) Hum Immunol. 65(4):282-90
3. Mitaksov V, Fremont DH. (2006) J Biol Chem. 281(15):10618-25
4. Wieczorek M, et al. (2017) Front Immunol. 8:292
5. Artyomov MN, et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107(39):16916-16921
6. Barnaba V, et al (1994) Eur J Immunol. 24(1):71-5
7. Di Rosa F, et al. (1993) Hum Immunol. 38(4):251-60
8. Castaño L, et al. (2004) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 39:80–84
9. Cucca F, et al. (1993) Hum Immunol. 37:85 –94
10. Petersdorf EW, (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93(26):15358-63